Charge Uni Technology Co., Ltd.

EV Charger Market Report 2022

I. Market and policy together drive the development of charger industry


1.1 The wave of electrification of automobile industry has come


EVTank data shows that in 2021, global new energy vehicle sales will reach 6.7 million units, a significant increase of 102.4% year-on-year, and the global vehicle electrification penetration rate will increase from 0.8% in 2015 to 7.74% in 2021, and global new energy vehicle sales are expected to exceed 8.5 million and 22 million units in 2022 and 2025 respectively. The global sales of new energy vehicles are expected to exceed 8.5 million and 22 million units in 2022 and 2025 respectively. According to the data of the Association of Passenger Transport, the retail penetration rate of new energy vehicles reached 31.8% in September, and it is expected that the sales of new energy vehicles in China will exceed 6 million and 10 million in 2022 and 2025.


By the end of September 2022, the number of new energy vehicles reached 11.49 million, with 3.713 million new registrations in the first three quarters. 3.713 million new energy vehicles were registered in the first three quarters of 2022, an increase of 1.842 million or 98.48% year-on-year. It is expected that by 2025, the number of domestic new energy vehicles will reach 40 million, and the percentage of ownership will reach 10%.


1.2 Policy promotion, charger is included in the new infrastructure


In recent years, while the charger industry is developing rapidly, there are still outstanding problems such as difficulty in building chargers in residential communities, uneven development of public charging facilities, and user charging experience to be improved. In this context, the country has introduced relevant policies to support the innovation of charger-related technology, mode and mechanism, to solve the problem of new energy charger development, build a new electricity system, improve the related infrastructure, and help achieve the goal of "double carbon". In May 2020, the State Council issued the "Government Work Report 2020", which put forward the concept of "new infrastructure" (new infrastructure construction) for the first time, and included charging infrastructure as one of the seven major infrastructures in the "new infrastructure". In January 2022, the National Development and Reform Commission and the National Energy Administration issued the "Implementation Opinions of the National Development and Reform Commission and Other Departments on Further Improving the Service Guarantee Capability of Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure" (Development and Reform Energy Regulations [2022]). No. 53), proposing that by the end of the 14th Five-Year Plan, China's electric vehicle charging guarantee capacity will be further improved, and a moderately advanced, balanced layout, intelligent and efficient charging infrastructure system will be formed, capable of meeting the charging needs of more than 20 million electric vehicles. A number of policies have been landed, making the development direction and development goals of China's new energy charger industry gradually clear, providing useful soil for the development of the industry.


1.3 Government subsidies shift from subsidizing vehicles to subsidizing chargers, from construction subsidies


In 2016, the Ministry of Finance and other five departments issued the "Notice on the "Thirteenth Five-Year Plan" New Energy Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Incentive Policy and Strengthening the Promotion and Application of New Energy Vehicles", which has given financial subsidies for the construction and operation of charging infrastructure. Implementation Opinions on Further Improving the Service Guarantee Capability of Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure" clearly proposes to increase financial and financial support, one is to optimize and optimize financial support policies, and the other is to improve the capacity of financial services. In addition, each local government has clearly introduced policies related to charger construction subsidies and charging operation subsidies. It can be found that the government financial subsidy policy is tilted to the supply side, showing a gradual change from "new energy vehicle subsidy" to "charging facility construction subsidy" to "charging facility construction subsidy + charging facility operation subsidy ".


1.4 Charging standard development is actively promoted


At present, there are mainly five international standards for chargers, namely: Chinese national standard GB/T, CCS1 American standard (combo/Type 1), CCS2 European standard (combo/Type 2), Japanese standard CHAdeMO, while Tesla has its own independent set of charging interface standards.


The more widely used charging standards worldwide include CCS and CHAdeMo, which support more models. Among them, CCS charging mode combines AC and DC interfaces into one, reducing the number of interfaces and lowering the manufacturing cost of chargers and body parts, which is promoted by major European and American car companies and has greater market potential. The number of charging facilities adopting GB/T 20234 standard is the largest in the world.


At this stage, Tesla models exported to China adopt the AC and DC charging interfaces of GB/T 20234, while Tesla models exported to Europe adopt the CCS Combo 2 interface, both of which can use charging posts conforming to the local interface standard.


The difference in standards has caused both the subsequent lack of uniformity in global charging interfaces and incompatible communication protocols, and has also led to the current urgent need for integration. As an important driving force in the development of international electric vehicle technology and industry, China should actively participate in the development of international standards, guide the coordination and unification of global charging standards, and play a greater role in the development of new charging standards such as high-power charging, wireless charging, and V2G in the future.


Two sets of charging standards are currently being prepared and revised in China: one is the 2015 charging national standard upgrade, and one ChaoJi charging standard. The common problems common to current DC charging systems are: oversized; insufficient mechanical strength; no consideration of backward compatibility, etc. These problems have been improved and designed in the 2015 charging standard upgrade and the "Chaoji" technical standard: the 2015 charging standard upgrade has improved many legacy problems in the past, with strict requirements on tolerance dimensions, increased locking device structure, increased electronic lock at the vehicle end, increased rated voltage to 1500V The current in the active cooling up to 800A, increase the physical switch of the car charger, solve the problem of PE broken needle, can realize remote wake-up, etc., also deleted the requirements of the vehicle seal, drainage port from optional to mandatory and other modifications. But because it is still in the middle of the consultation, there may be a slight adjustment before the release.


ChaoJi standard on the basis of the 2015 national standard, learning from the experience of the world's four major interfaces, in terms of structural design, mechanical strength, charging safety, compatibility, high-power charging, the ability to expand subsequent new features are better than the 2015 national standard. In addition, ChaoJi standard interface can be compatible with the four major charging systems such as GB/T2015, Japanese CHAdeMO, American CCS1 and European CCS2 through adapters and specially designed guide circuits and other system control strategies.



II. Charger industry chain analysis


2.1 Charger industry chain

The upstream of automobile charger industry chain is the components and equipment manufacturers required for the construction and operation of chargers; the midstream is the charging operators; the downstream of the industry chain is various charging scenarios for all kinds of electric vehicle users, including new energy vehicle enterprises and personal consumption. Among them, equipment component manufacturers (equipment side) and charger operators (operation side) are the most important links of the charger industry chain.


There are many charger component manufacturers, and the pattern is fragmented, with full competition among enterprises. Some midstream charger operators have started to integrate the industry chain, develop upstream business and produce their own charging equipment for subsequent operation, such as TGOOD, a leading midstream enterprise. 2020 will see chargers incorporated into the national "new infrastructure", which will inject some living water into the upstream industry, and some upstream enterprises have started to lay out their charger business, such as Xuji Electric. Some upstream enterprises have started to lay out charger business, such as Xuji Electric, and started to develop charger machine products.


2.2 Charger equipment side


According to different charging technologies, chargers can be divided into DC charging, AC charging, wireless charging, etc. The current mainstream charging mode is AC charging and DC charging.


1) AC charger


AC charger is a power supply device that is fixedly installed outside the electric vehicle and connected to the power grid to provide AC power for the electric vehicle on-board charger (i.e. the charger fixedly installed on the electric vehicle). The AC charger only provides power output and has no charging function, and needs to be connected to the on-board charger to charge the EV. It only plays the role of a control power supply. AC charging is characterized by low charging power and long charging time, but the cost of charging equipment is low.


The structure of AC charger is simple, mainly consisting of control main board, electric power input and output circuit, charging connector, human-machine interaction unit and other components. The core is the motherboard, which accounts for nearly 30% of the cost, followed by the gun line and shell, which also account for about 30% of the cost respectively. Shenghong 7KW AC charger, for example, its input voltage of AC220V ± 20%, the rated output voltage of AC220V, rated output power of 7KW, rated output current of 32A, the motherboard in addition to measuring power also provides input over-voltage protection, input over-current protection, anti-surge protection, output short-circuit protection, over-temperature protection, anti-backfill protection, battery active protection, emergency stop and other protection functions.


In terms of market pattern, the main players of AC charger, mainly private home charger, are Zedar Technology, Star Charging, KDDI, Zidao and other enterprises. According to the statistics of China Charging Industry Alliance, by the end of 2021, there will be 1.45 million private chargers nationwide, and according to the data published by Zhi Da Technology in 2021, it shipped 350,000 private chargers, with a 24% volume share, which is the first in the country; the family/community charging service provider with the widest coverage of charging service nationwide, serving more than 350 cities.


2) DC chargers


The basic components of DC charger include: power unit, control unit, metering unit, charging interface, power supply interface and human-machine interaction interface, etc. The power unit refers to the DC charging module, and the control unit refers to the charger controller. In addition to the above core components, a DC charger has other important small parts, such as sheet metal parts, fuses, relays and lightning protection devices. DC charger itself is a system integration product, besides the two components "DC charging module" and "charger controller" which constitute the core of the technology, the structural design is also one of the key points for the reliability design of the whole charger.

The input voltage of DC charger is 380V, the power is usually above 60KW, and it only takes 20-150 minutes to be fully charged. DC chargers are suitable for scenarios with high charging time requirements, such as charging stations for operating vehicles like cabs, buses, logistics vehicles, and public chargers for passenger cars.


Single charging module (generally 15kW, the latest technology can do 40KW) can not meet the power requirements, multiple charging modules need to work together in parallel, need to have CAN bus to achieve multiple modules to achieve equalize the current, to achieve high power and high current charging. The charging power of DC integrated machine of Shenghong can reach 240KW, the output voltage range is 200V-750V, and the maximum output current can reach 720A.


3)Comparison of AC charger and DC charger


AC charger needs to be charged by vehicle charger, while DC fast charger does not need this equipment. A pure electric car (ordinary battery capacity) needs 8 hours to be fully discharged through AC charger, while it only takes 20 to 150 minutes through DC fast charger. The AC charger provides power input to the charger of the electric vehicle, and since the power of the on-board charger is not very large, fast charging cannot be achieved. DC fast charger is a power supply device that is fixedly installed outside the electric vehicle and connected to the AC power grid, which can provide DC power to the power battery of non-vehicle electric vehicles. DC charger can provide enough power with a large range of voltage and current adjustment of output, which can realize the requirements of fast charging.


4)DC charger


The performance of the charging charger not only directly affects the overall performance of the charger, but also relates to the charging safety issue. At the same time, the charging module accounts for more than half of the overall cost of the charger, and is also one of the key technical cores of the charger.


With the improvement of battery capacity and charging multiplier of electric vehicles in recent years, the development trend of charging module market gradually develops towards high power. At present, China's charging module has gone through three generations of development, from the first generation of 7.5kW to the second generation of 15/20kW, and is now in the second generation to the third generation of 30/40kW conversion period, domestic manufacturers such as Infineon, Yonghuang, Youyou Green Energy and Electric King fast charging companies have the ability to mass production using 40kW charging module, high-power charging module has become the mainstream of the market. In the current domestic market, 20kW module occupies about 60% of the market capacity, and the remaining capacity is occupied by 30kW and part of 40kW module.


5)Charger cost composition

The main cost of charger construction is the cost of charger hardware equipment, accounting for more than 90%. Among them, charging module is the core equipment and main cost source of charger, accounting for 45%-55% of the hardware cost of new energy vehicle charger.

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